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All relevant publications associated with the project will be listed here, including those relating to earlier pilot projects which largely consist of technical papers. For those interested in further reading on environmental and medieval archaeology in the Baltic region, more information is provided below.

PDFPluskowski, A. G. Brown, A. Shillito, L-M. Seetah, K. Makowiecki, D. Jarzebowski, M. Kļaviņš, K. and Kreem, J. 2011. 'The Ecology of Crusading project: new research on medieval Baltic landscapes' Antiquity 85/328.

PDFPluskowski, A. G. Boas, A. Gerrard, C. 2011. 'The ecology of crusading: Investigating the environmental impact of holy war and colonisation at the frontiers of medieval Europe', Medieval Archaeology 55: 192-225.

Carson, S., Shillito, L-M., Brown, A. and Pluskowski, A. G. 2012. Environmental assessment of samples from the castle site at Grudziądz, Poland.  Wiewióra, M (ed). Zamek w Grudziądzu w świetle badań archeologiczno-architektonicznych. Materiały i studia. Toruń: UMK: 351-357.

PDFPluskowski, A. G. 2012. The Archaeology of the Prussian Crusade: Holy War and Colonisation (including a chapter on environmental archaeology with Alex Brown), London: Routledge. This is widely available, including from Amazon, Oxbow and Routledge


Publications for some of the key sites in the project are listed below:

Malbork castle

PDFMaltby, M. Pluskowski, A. G. and Seetah, K. 2009. ‘Animal bones from an industrial quarter at Malbork, Poland: towards an ecology of a castle built in Prussia by the Teutonic Order’, Crusades, 8:191-212.


PDFPluskowski, A. G. Seetah, K. and Maltby, M. 2010. 'Potential osteoarchaeological evidence for riding and the military use of horses at the castle in Malbork, Poland', International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 20/3: 235-343.

PDFBrown, A.D. and Pluskowski, A.G. 2011. 'Detecting the environmental impact of the Baltic Crusades on a late medieval (13th-15th century) frontier landscape: palynological analysis from Malbork castle and hinterland, northern Poland', Journal of Archaeological Science, 38: 1957-1966.

Malbork castle

Pluskowski, A. G. Sawicki, Z. Shillito, L-M, Badura, M. Makowiecki, D. Zabilska-Kunek, M, Seetah, K, Brown, A. 2014. ‘Biała Góra: The forgotten colony in the medieval Pomeranian-Prussian borderlands, Antiquity, 88/341: 863–882.

Sawicki, Z. Pluskowski, A. G. Brown, A. Badura, M. Makowiecki, D. Shillito, L-M. Zabilska-Kunek, M. and Seetah, K. 2014. 'Survival at the frontier of holy war: Political expansion, crusading, environmental exploitation and the medieval colonising settlement at Biała Góra, north Poland' European Journal of Archaeology (in press).

Karksi castle


PDFValk, H. Pluskowski, A. G. Thornley, D. Brown, A. and Summerfield, C. 2009. 'Fluxgate gradiometry survey in the ruins of Karksi Castle and palaeoenvironmental analysis in its hinterlands', Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis/Archaeological Field Work in Estonia: 213-219.

PDFValk, H., Pluskowski, A., Brown, A., Rannamäe, E., Malve, M. and Varul, L. 2012. The castle of the Teutonic Order in Karksi: preliminary excavation results. Archaeological Fieldwork in Estonia, 2011: 47-56.

Valk, H., Rannamäe, E., Brown, A., Pluskowski, A., Badura, M. and Lõugas, L. 2013. Thirteenth century cultural deposits at the castle of the Teutonic Order in Karksi. Archaeological Fieldwork in Estonia, 2012: 73-92.


Further Reading

Archaeology (case studies and syntheses)

Haak, A. 2003. 'Excavations at Viljandi castle of the Teutonic Order', Arheoloogilised välitööd Eestis/ Archaeological Fieldwork in Estonia: 71-83.

Jarockis, R. 2004. 'Coins from 14th-17th century burial in Lithuania. Pagan relict or reflection of Christianisation and monetization', in J. Staecker (ed.) The European Frontier: Clashes and Compromises in the Middle Ages, 233-242.

Karczewska, M. Karczewski M. 2007. 'Grodzisko "Święta Góra" w Staświnach w Krainie Wielkich Jezior Mazurskich. Archeologia archiwalna i nowa', Komunikaty Mazursko-Warmińskie, 2(256), 131-163.

Karczewski, M. 2009. 'Dokąd dotarł św. Brunon? Przesłanki archeologiczne', Polsko Niemieckie Sympozjum Historyczne, Poszukiwanie śladów św. Brunona w historii współczesności, [Der Suche nach Spuren vom Heiligen Bruno in der Geschichte der Gegenwart], Bartoszyce, 28-31.

Lang, V. and Valk, H. 2011. 'An archaeological reading of the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia: Events, traces, contexts and interpretations', in, M. Tamm, L. Kaljundi and C. S. Jensen (eds.) Crusading and Chronicle Writing on the Medieval Baltic Frontier, Aldershot: Ashgate, 291-316.

Mugurēvičs, Ē. 1990. 'Interactions between indigenous and western culture in Livonia in the 13th to 16th centuries', in D. Austin and L. Alcock (eds.) From the Baltic to the Black Sea, 168-178.

Poliński, D. 2003. Późnośredniowieczne osadnictwo wiejskie w ziemi chełmińskiej. Toruń: WUMK.

Sne, A. 2002. 'Castles, towns and villages – different landscapes of power in territory of Latvia from the 11th –16th centuries', in Core-Centre-Periphery: Medieval Europe 2, 261-265.

Svetikas, E. 2002. 'The tertiaries in the early stages of Christianity in Lithuania: their attributes in the light of archaeology', in Core-Centre-Periphery: Medieval Europe 2, 411-420.

Valk, H. 2004. 'Christianisation of Estonia: a process of double-faith and syncretism', in M. Carver (ed.) The Cross Goes North: Processes of Conversion in Northern Europe, AD 300-1300, Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 571-575.

Valk, H. 2004. 'Christian and non-Christian holy sites in medieval Estonia', in J. Staecker (ed.) The European Frontier: Clashes and Compromises in the Middle Ages, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 299-310.

Zooarchaeology (syntheses)

Chęć, A 2009. ‘The fishes and fishery in the Teutonic Knights State in Prussia according to written and archaeozoological sources’, in D. Makowiecki, S. Hamilton Dyer, I. Riddler and N. Trzaska (eds), Fishes – Culture – Environment Through Archaeoichthyology, Ethnography & History, 15th Fish Remains Working Group  (FRWG) Meeting; Srodowisko I Kultura, 7, Poznań, 69-71.

Makowiecki, D. 2007. 'Gospodarka zwierzętami w strefie chełmińskiego pogranicza słowiańsko pruskiego i krzyżackiego w średniowieczu', in K. Grążawski (ed.) Pogranicze polsko-pruskie i krzyżackie, Włocławek: Lega, 23-37.

Makowiecki, D. 2009. 'Animals in the landscape of the medieval countryside and urban agglomerations of the Baltic Sea countries', in Città e campagana nei secoli altomedievali, Spoleto, 427-444.

Mugurēvičs, Ē. 2002. 'Forest animals and hunting in medieval Livonia', in Core-Centre-Periphery: Medieval Europe 2, 177-181.

Rannamäe, E., 2010. A Zooarchaeological Study of Animal Consumption in Medieval Viljandi. MA thesis. Manuscript in the archaeology archives of the University of Tartu, Estonia. Also available as a PDF here

Wyczółkowski, M and Makowiecki, D. 2009. ‘Horse sacrifices in Prussia in the early Middle Ages. Ritual area in Poganowo Site IV, Olsztyn Province (Poland)’, Archaeologia Baltica 11: 295-304. NB: this volume has several excellent papers on the role of the horse in pre-Christian Baltic societies.

Žulkus, V and Daugnora, L. 2009. 'What did the Order's brothers eat in the Klaipėda castle? (The historical and zooarchaeological data)', Archaeologia Baltica 12: 74-87.


Palaeoenvironmental studies (integrated case studies)

Hackens, T. Hicks, S. Lang, V. Miller, U and Saarse, L. (eds.) 1996. Coastal Estonia: Recent Advances in Environmental and Cultural History, PACT 51, Strasbourg: Conseil de l'Europe.

Karczewski, M. 2008. ‘Zmiany poziomu lustra wody w jeziorach mazurskich w ciągo ostatnich dwóch tysięcy lat w świetle źródeł archeologicznych i historycznych’, Botanical Guidebooks 30, 47-75.

Stančikaitė, M Kisilienė, D, Mažeika, J. and Blaževičius, P. 2008. 'Environmental conditions and human interference during the 6th and 13th-15th centuries A.D. at Vilnius Lower Castle, east Lithuania', Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 17/1: 239-250.

Stančikaitė, M. Šinkūnas, P, Risberg, J, Šeirienė, V, Blažauskas, N, Jarockis, R, Karlsson, S and Miller,U. 2009. 'Human activity and the environment during the Late Iron Age and Middle Ages at the Impiltis archaeological site, NW Lithuania', Quaternary International,20: 74-90.

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