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The map below enables a comparison between the modern sovereign states of the Baltic region, and the territories of the Teutonic Order and individual bishops in Prussia and Livonia by 1310 AD. Move the mouse over the map to switch between 2010 and 1310. The medieval map, which currently shows some key places relating to the project, will be updated with new sites after the evaluation phase has been completed.

Map of modern Baltic

Throughout the 13th century, the Teutonic Order and its allies led a series of crusades against the Baltic tribes, forging a new monastic state. In Livonia, the early crusades were led by a local military order - The Sword Brothers - who were merged with the Teutonic Order in 1237. Northern Estonia had been conquered by the Danish crown and was eventually sold to the Order in 1346.

In 1309, the Order relocated its headquarters from Venice to Marienburg (Malbork) in Prussia and sustained a century of war with Lithuania, and ultimately Poland. Its territories took on the nature of a frontier society, but military incursions were generally limited to reisen - short campaigns across the borders of Prussia and Livonia. In 1410, Polish and Lithuanian armies marched on Prussia and prompted the gradual dismemberment of the Order's state. The end of the Order's Livonian branch was hastened by the 'Livonian War', initiated in 1558 by the Russian Tsar Ivan IV (aka 'Ivan the Terrible').

European Research Council Malbork castle museum
University of Reading
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University of TartuElblag museum logoUniversity of TorunUniversity of BialystokCesis castleUniversity of GdanskNational Museum Riga